Read This Before You Do Another Squat (Then Do Several, After)

Squats are cool. Some of you probably disagree with that, but I’m going to do my best to convince you otherwise. For those already onboard the awesome-squat train, I’m about to make your squats safer, smarter and more effective through the geometry of that super-sexy skeleton of yours.

You Are Designed for Squatting

Squatting is not something you have to learn; it’s built into our physiology. If I could snap my fingers and suddenly remove all the muscle tissue from a standing, posture-neutral body, (1) that would be horrifying and (2) that body would collapse into what is essentially a squat position before toppling forward.

Improving your squat mechanics is about removing the stuff that’s in the way of that collapse so that you can “fall” smoothly, allowing a predetermined set of tissues to store the acceleration due to gravity as eccentric muscular tension. You may have heard before that running is a sort of forward-falling; This is similar.

A Good Squat Starts at Your Feet

Your feet are not simply a couple bricks for wrapping in overpriced, brightly colored foam; they are an amazing combination of hardcore load-bearing structures and delicate sensory tissues. Your feet are also the first line of defense between you and gravity, capable of converting violent gravitational acceleration (21.9 mph/s, by the way, or the approximate acceleration of the 2011 Ferrari 458) into kicking ass and taking names.

Despite this, an abundance of squatters and squat coaches have become obsessed with knees, devoting a ton of their focus to which direction the knees are pointing and exactly which toes they track over. Because of that, what I’m about to say may come as a shock:

It doesn’t matter.

Did you hear that? That was all NASM certificate holders simultaneously gasping in horror.
“Blasphemer!” — NASM certificate holders everywhere

From this moment forward you can stop thinking about your knees while you squat. Your knees will do exactly what thy are supposed to do, I promise, if we all decided to stop fixating on them.

Getting Your Joints Organized

The knee is what I like to call an “intermediary joint”; situated between the foot and the pelvis, the knee acts as an adapter between the two, translating the direction of force coming from the subtalar joint in the foot to be used as propulsion by the hip.

The subtalar joint is the most important joint you didn’t know you had; it’s sort of like the body’s steering wheel. It’s just below the ankle, where the calcaneus (heel bone) and and the talus (ankle bone) meet. It does two things, roll in and roll out:

IMG_0281

 

 

LEFT: inversion RIGHT: eversion
LEFT: inversion
RIGHT: eversion

Eversion (rolling in) is the first component of a squat: the foundation on which everything that follows is based. Without it, what you’re doing isn’t really a squat so much as it is a slow, repetitive crushing of all your joints. This is because eversion of the subtalar joint is what creates dorsiflexion of the ankle joint:

Pictured: a dorsiflexed ankle. Limited eversion means that ankle either doesn't bend as much as it is supposed to or it does bend and just compresses the crap out of every compressible bit that might be in the way.
Pictured: a dorsiflexed ankle. Limited eversion means that ankle either doesn’t bend as much as it is supposed to or it does bend and just compresses the crap out of every compressible bit that might be in the way.

Proper eversion begets proper dorsiflexion, which, in turn, creates one of the most powerful motions in in the human skeletal system: internal rotation of the tibia.

What looks to the untrained eye like the simple hinging of a type-3 lever is actually a coiling action, driven by that initial eversion of the subtalar joint
What looks to the untrained eye like the simple hinging of a type-3 lever is actually a coiling action, driven by that initial eversion of the subtalar joint.

The tibia is a full one half of the knee joint. At this stage of our hypothetical squat, it is currently rotating in, and that is exactly what it’s supposed to be doing. The other half of the knee joint—the femur—needs to rotate in the opposite direction. Is that surprising? If you’ve ever seen a picture of the meniscus, it shouldn’t be:

n2214

By following the longitudinal axes of the ligaments, it’s clear that this structure is designed to coil: the human knee has much more in common with a spring than a hinge.

And getting that counter-rotation is actually pretty easy. Remember how we rotated the tibias just by everting the heels? Well, we rotate the femurs just by shifting the center of gravity: in this case, forward a couple centimeters:

(side view)

When you attempt to move your knees, what the vast majority of people do is move their tibias in a horizontal spread. But, since the knee doesn’t move horizontally, it interprets that force as a rotation in the wrong direction. The subtalar joint, however, does move horizontally, so what looks like “knees out” is actually subtalar inversion—a lot of it. This overloads the peroneals, disconnects the weight bearing structures of the feet from the ground and further prevents the knee from doing what it is designed to do.

Furthermore, the overstretched peroneals drag on the IT band which, in turn, prevents the femurs from laterally rotating, which locks the center of gravity over the rear foot.

No good squat can come from that.

Putting It Together

Forget the “knees out” cue—not because “knees out” is wrong, but because what you do when you attempt to follow that instruction isn’t what is intended.

To prepare for your squat, actively roll your heels in, flattening the arches of your feet—just a little will do. This will make the knee joint appear to deviate (toward each other). This is totally ok.

Next, while maintaining this new heel/knee position, shift your pelvis forward. You will notice that your knees automatically begin to rotate away from each other. Continue this forward shift until your weight is centered just behind the toe box, and equally between both feet with comfortable contact remaining between the heels and the floor.

Now as you drop, the resulting backward shift of your center of gravity will be countered and absorbed by your subtalar joints and ankles instead of your knees; your glutes will eccentrically store 21.9 mph/s of acceleration and you’ll pop back up like, well  . . .

i.chzbgr

 

Happy squatting.

 

Remember, a squat may be a natural human movement, but that doesn’t mean that they aren’t challenging. Be patient with your practice and use common sense!

 

45 thoughts on “Read This Before You Do Another Squat (Then Do Several, After)

  1. I hate squats. Only because I seem to be incapable of doing them and I want to be able to. I have recently started googleing how to squat, looking at all kinds of things, reading articles and…no help. It frustrates me because I run, I (try to) squat at Crossfit, I go to dance class but for some reason squats allude me. Every time I try I get frustrated and want to punch someone and huff like a small child (which clearly I don’t do because that would just be ridiculous). I always enjoy reading your articles and while this one makes sense I was wondering: apart from poor form, are there any reasons why a person ‘can’t’ squat? I am becoming squat disillusioned and need some help!

    1. I frequently work with folks who are healthy, fit and strong but who cannot squat well. It’s a very specific deviation and actually very common.

      The biggest factor with my can’t-squatters is invariably some kind of subtalar dysfunction. This could be anything from chronic ankle instability to high calcaneal inclination (high arches) to choice in footwear. Significant enough deviation into subtalar inversion will prevent anyone from squatting, no matter how strong they might be. My suspicion is that your problem is there.

      Try this: as you are attempting your squat, try bending your dominant-side knee a little deeper than your non-dominant side knee; to correct the resulting tilt in your pelvis, rotate the hips toward the dominant side. This will make you feel twisted but, when viewed in a mirror, you’ll look straight.

      Let me know how that goes and we’ll work from there.

      Don’t worry about this; you haven’t failed at anything. Your body behaves the way it does for a reason and that reason is probably a good one. The compensation patterns you have developed that prevent you from squatting likely enable you to do other important things within the context of your lifestyle and environment. We’ll work to understand why things work they way they do and then, quite suddenly, they will begin to work better.

      Be patient; you’re doing great.

      1. Thank you so much for the response and encouragement, it is so motivating. I have been trying what you recommended and I do notice a difference – I can just break parallel and feel more comfortable doing it. If I wanted to go any lower (which I do obviously! ) I would be forced to lift my heels and move my weight forward, which is obviously completely pointless. i will carry on practising and let you know if I see more improvement. Thanks again, really appreciate it!

  2. Wow, thanks for the great article on squats. I can actually follow your direction with zero knee pain! Which I’m pretty sure I got from trying too hard at a yoga knee and thigh stretch. That’s my usual MO, to injure myself while trying to help myself, so I really appreciate your articles! Thanks so much!

  3. So would you say the issue with people who can’t squat fully with heels on ground is not an issue of lack of length in soleus muscle so much as a subtalar dysfunction? So stretching would not be the solution I would guess? What is the fix to correct that, if tibia doesn’t internally rotate very well? What is preventing proper movement of those bones? Thanks for the post-my knees felt better right away! It completely reversed what I had been trying to do which was push knees out in an attempt to externally rotate femurs and keep weight in heels (not to mention neutral pelvis). Now I feel weight more in front of foot which does seem to open ankle and take pressure out of knee. And my qigong teacher doesn’t want neutral pelvis anyway!

  4. Kudos on this article. I was taught repeatedly, through high school P.E. to my own weight-training studies, that the squat is one of the great foundations of strength training. I’m thinking about looking at the squat seriously again, especially as it’s one of the exercises I can still do safely with a bad back. Thanks for the info.

  5. Great article. Can you clarify ankles in (eversion) please?

    I was doing great with your advice when rotating my hips some how,which rotated my tibia, caused minor movement of knees to medial (as you described), but then putting a slight forward tilt on my pelvis to allow my knees to come out. Great.

    However, the eversion of the ankles is confusing me. When you say ankles rolling in, do you mean A) The ankles moving towards each other (and the feet therefore away), or B) do you mean on the other plane, in that you mean your weight comes more towards the inside of the foot? I hope the latter becuase then your article makes perfect sense to me!

    Thanks again,
    David

    1. Aren’t A and B the same but described differently (one is motion one is loading)? In order to flatten the arch i.e. shifting weight medially the ankles must come towards each other?

  6. Kevin, a quick question about how hyperlax ligaments might affect squatting. Practicing squatting combined with plies in barre class really made my non-dominant knee hurt, resulting in a consult with ortho and diagnosis of two hypermobile, loose knees. I’m working hard to strengthen weak/tight muscles to support my knees and squatting is a large part of that, but I’m still having a hard time doing it without pain and terrible crunching noises.

    1. Your pattern of side-dominance will play an important role here, Megan. You’re going to need to significantly exaggerate motions that follow from knee activity in the knee, namely,eccentric loading of the glute during knee bending in the dominant leg AND concentric loading of the vastis medialis/inner thigh group during knee extension in the non-dominant leg.

      And since even I think that sounds confusing when written out like that, catch me on Skype at kevin.smarterstrength and I can coach you through a few things that will help.

      Thanks for getting in touch!

  7. Hi Kevin, Thank you for your insightful and eye-opening posts! My question is sort of related to this and your earlier article. Are there direct connection between flat footedness and eversion of subtalar joint? And the second question about flat footedness. I guess that feet are flat not because of weak muscles but because a person taught himself to move without using these muscles. And the flat foot is not a problem by itself but it is an indicator that a person’s way of movement is not optimal (as optimal includes using these muscles) and therefore compensated (and compensation is a real problem). Am I right or not? I’m not a professional at all. Then – if the muscles don’t create the pattern of the movement but respond to it, it is correct to say that just doing exercises to strengthen abductors doesn’t add any real value, as it doesn’t make people move differently, using foot abductors for more natural and effective movement?

    1. Maria, your instincts are right on. You say you’re not a professional, but you might want to consider becoming one!

      “Are there direct connection between flat footedness and eversion of subtalar joint?”

      Yes, though typically only in the non-dominant foot, where the forefoot/halux tends to supinate. In the dominant foot it is often the reverse: the calcaneus remains in an unloaded inversion and the forefoot/halux deeply pronates. These two patterns will appear similar, in that the arch will present as “flat.”

      “And the flat foot is not a problem by itself but it is an indicator that a person’s way of movement is not optimal”

      That’s exactly right. Arches are developed by being exposed to certain environmental factors; simply strengthening muscles will not, in my experience sustain a functional arch.

      You’ve got a good understanding of these concepts, Maria. You ought to consider pursuing more education in this field!

  8. Hi Kevin, thanks much for this fantastic post. I’ve been pursuing strength training for a few years, and squats have always been my Achilles’ heel. I’m going to start experimenting with these mechanical alterations and see how it goes. One question: when shifting the pelvis forward, is that accomplished via tilting, and if so is it anterior or posterior, or is it a simple forward translation?

    1. Hi David. Great question! The safest bet at first is forward translation. Feel free to experiment with posterior or anterior tilt; just know that you’re looking for whichever one creates the strongest ECCENTRIC engagement of the glute during your decent (which can be different for different folks).

  9. thanks for this post! and also thanks for the “how knees work” post as well.
    I started karate about a year ago and after a few months I started having troubles with my knees. I figured that it’s probably a combination of always sitting too much and that when I move I move wrong. I’ve probably created some sort of imbalance and I might have happily spent several more years not knowing about this, but karate made it visible.

    now, one thing my sensei keeps telling me is to push my knees outwards, but from reading this it seems to me like maybe the way they’re describing it isn’t quite right? am I right-ish or way off? any better ways of adjusting stances than just “pushing my knees out”? I do try to find out how to move so it won’t hurt when doing stances and kicks and what not, but as I’m not at all educated in this it’s kinda hard to figure out and while my instructors all mean well they have limited understanding of how the body works and sometimes it shows.

    1. “one thing my sensei keeps telling me is to push my knees outwards . . . maybe the way they’re describing it isn’t quite right?”

      Bingo. What they mean is “externally rotate your femurs.” This can often be accomplished simply by shifting your weight forward, also by thinking of “narrowing your sitting bones.” Either way, the result should be a sense of engagement at the glute.

      Does that help?

  10. This article hit me because I have had trouble with the subtalar area for a long time now. In the area between the medial malleolus and the heel, there is a sort of sensitive protrusion that seems like a bundle of compressed nerve.

    It rarely hurts but always feels compressed with dorsiflexion at the ankle. I have thought it may be tarsal tunnel syndrome. My achilles are also short, and tend to pull off-axis. I have significant heel spurs.
    Basically I feel I have very little ankle dorsiflexion, and when I do dorsiflex, a lot of pressure is put on the nerve bundle deal.

    Any thoughts as to what this nerve bundle may be, and what I can do to not let it hinder movement so much?

    Cheers

  11. Hi Kevin
    Amazing article, very interesting stuff. Iv been studying olympic weightlifting for quite some time now and most coaches will teach a “screw your feet into the ground ” cue, meaning rotate your feet laterally while flat on the ground, weight evenly distributed through Heel, 5th metatarsal and big toe(this is done this talar EVERSION). this is done while simultaneously “spreading the floor with your feet.” The goal here is to “push the knees out” to give yourself room to drop between your heels, with an upright torso. I find this style to allow me to drop with little resistance while being able to be maximally strong at the bottom of the squat (working with weights upto 500lbs on the squat). However there is a style referred to as “CHAMFU” squats which are done by some of the Chinese lifters that look a little like the style you mention above in your article. Do you know anything about this? Can you refer me to some good literature on
    squat mechanics ?

  12. Hi kevin,
    I love your blog.
    “Proper” squats are my enemy! The only way I can get a below parallel squat is to do an almost sumo squat. I try squatting on a low box/bench so that I can get low without tipping backwards. I find when I do this I get pain in the top/side of my foot over my talus area. No matter how hard I try, how much I stretch or whatebver, I just can’t squat “properly”.
    Should I just admit defeat and continue plié/sumo squatting?

  13. Treblemaker909! You are either my twin or you stole my ankles. My podiatrist calls it Equinus: The shape of the talus is such that it creates bone on bone contact with very little dorsiflexion. Kevin’s suggestion to ensure my ankles are well everted (rolled in) allows me to go around the talus and I can squat to the ground WITH MY FEET STILL PLANTED. I especially have to focus on everting the ankle on my dominant leg. I’ve been at this for over a week now and do have a little soreness at the top/side of my ankle, and soreness/tightness from stretch on the outside of my calf/ankle. But with some facial mobilization, I am seeing this improve. Report back! Good luck!

  14. Hi Kevin,

    I had a falling injury this year which resulted in a complete break of my right calcaneus. Prior to this fall, I was squatting 180 kg for 5 reps parallel. Its been five months since my accident and necessary operation to screw the parts back together. I wasn’t able to bear weight for two months. Now, I’m walking nearly without a limp. I’m doing squats with just the bar. What I’m wondering is have you had any experience with such injuries? I’ve always enjoyed an active and sports intensive lifestyle. I’m in my mid 40s and I’m having thoughts like “Will I ever be able to run again?” … I was accustomed to doing squats, deadlifts, and then follow up with some sprints. Any thoughts to expedite recovery? Any thoughts about what I can expect in returning to an active lifestyle?

    Thanks,

    -John

    1. First of all, John, I’m very optimistic that at the very least running will eventually be an available activity for you.

      The human foot transitions between a mobile adapter and a rigid lever when we walk or run. I expect that, in the wake of your injury and long recovery, your foot has adopted a preference for the “rigid lever” phase of gait. To expedite your recovery, you’ll want to accentuate actions in the right foot and leg that correspond to the “mobile adapter” phase, which include the following:

      Forefoot supination
      subtalar eversion
      tibial internal rotation
      knee flexion
      external rotation of the ipsilateral (same side) hip
      isometric and eccentric activation of the ipsilateral hip extensors

      If you’d like to go over these concepts in more detail some time, look me up on Skype at reembodyme.

      Good luck!

  15. Try telling people that have a disability like me that they were designed for squatting. I was born with Spina Bifida. I never squatted when I was a baby. It was after I started to walk at 2 years old that I squatted. Even then, I could not and still can’t squat like our ancestors did hundreds of years ago. I am able to squat to a little above parallel. That is the best I can do. My disability will not allow me to squat all the way down. I have been doing them this way every night since last month. I think I might start doing the pause squats.

  16. I have fairly severe patellar femoral syndrome just in my right knee. I’ve had two normal births, and have been doing CrossFit for a total of 6 years (4.5 of those were pregnant / post-Partum with my second). I am beginning to really believe that the “knees out” and “good foot arches!” Cues are to blame for my knee pain. The reason for this is that when working on Elevated split squats, my glutes and quads engage, my foot arches are flat, and *shocking* I can press stably on both sides! And they HELP my knee pain!

    However, because I’ve been squatting wrong, and running wrong (run on the balls of your feet! “Pose running!” Now my calves and Achilles are wound up tighter than… Well tight.), I now am finding that I DO NOT have the knee OR ankle flexion to facilitate this easy squat you showed. When my right knee is fully flexed it hurts like hell until the surrounding muscles stretch OR get warm. All around from hips down I feel tight. (Although I can do splits on both sides, and can get in a center split with about 7″ space between hips and ground) How do you recommend mobilizing / drilling that ankle and knee rang of motion required to squat so effortlessly?

    1. There are essentially three movements you need more of in your right leg, Caroline: forefoot supination, subtalar eversion, and knee flexion. I could easily show you a few drills for working through these motions that I’m confident will take away a significant portion of the shearing forces currently affecting your knee. Find me on Skype at reembodyme and I’ll talk you through it.

  17. Really cool post! Makes so much sense but counterintuitive from a classic-PT-cue POV, just the way I like my info! Would this apply to running as well?! I think that I compensate a knee valgus by forcing ankle inversion, which would be detrimental, given this info what I should be doing is ankle eversion while pushing my pelvis forward. No wonder I can’t coordinate a forward pelvis with an inverted ankle, it is not anatomically correct, stupid! 🙂 Again thanks!

  18. My issue is that my heels like to come up when I go down for a squat – I have very little dorsiflexion in my ankles. The rotation of the pelvis really helped bring my knees back out and allowed me to go a little deeper. But there is still tightness in my ankles. Any tips on ankle mobilization?

  19. Hi Kevin! Great article, it really helped me get into the squat more comfortably. However, do you mind answering my question? I would really appreciate it. 🙂
    I have no problem with deep squatting, everything is fine – except for my ankles. I have a hard time keeping myself upright in the squat, and the muscles the pull my ankle in dorsiflexion have to work hard to keep my balance, and although my ankle dorsiflexion is average, it doesn’t go into its “full potential” while I’m squatting? (so, say that if I push my weight into my ankles, my dorsiflexion can go into maybe 20 degrees angle, but when I’m squatting it’s only perhaps 10 degrees). Do you know if there is anything I can do about this? Will stretching or strengthening the muscles that pull my ankle into dorsiflexion help? Or both? Thank you in advance!
    Sorry for my English explanations, I’m not a native speaker! 🙂

    1. I just noticed – 20 degrees doesn’t make sense. What I meant is that I can touch my knees to the wall with my feet 9cm from the wall (and heels touching the ground) when I’m standing by putting my weight into the stretch. However, when I’m squatting, my knees do not go over my toes at all… Therefore, I have to lean into the squat with my torso, while firmly tightening the muscles in the front of my foot/ankle area (the ones responsible for dorsiflexion) not to fall over.

    2. Hi Rita! Let me see if I can answer this as concisely as possible (I’ll also send the answer in an email).

      What your describing is common: where you know you HAVE more dorsiflexion than your ankle will allow under load. While it may sound strange at first, what’s happening there is that your ankles are dorsiflexing at different RATES: The non-dominant too fast and the dominant to slow. Once the non-dominant runs out of room, the lumbopelvic region is forced out of alignment by the resulting torque, which destabilises the weight. At that point, various points in the kinetic chain——non-dominant knee, lumbar discs, dominant shoulder, etc.——become overburdened and the nervous system responds to protect them. That response is characterized by an inability to bring the center of mass forward where it bears the weight of the load directly; instead the center of mass “falls back,” trying to “escape” the load.

      I can talk you through a corrective for this. Find me on Skype at reembodyme.

  20. How do you do, Kevin! Thank you for your helpful article! Before, I didn’t know about eversion and wondered why I felt pressure in my ankles during dorsilexion, but no stretch. Now I do (thanks to you!), and my ankle dorsiflexion had become a lot better. However, I still don’t feel a stretch in my calves at all, no matter what I do. I’ve tried many dorsiflexion stretches (foot on wall, foot on books, etc.), yet I only feel a light pressure around the ankle area (even while they’re in eversion, but the pressure is much lighter and less noticeable that before). The only time I feel a light stretch is if my knees are straightened, though I read that it stretches a different muscles in the calf (than when the knees are bent). Is it because of my bone structure, or can I mobilize it? Your insight is appreciated! Thank you in advance! 🙂

    1. Perhaps, is it possible that the “block” in dorsiflexion is caused by wrong posture? I seem to have a tendency to lean a bit backwards when I walk, but lean forward when I stand. Could it be that this causes by talus bone to “slide” forward, therefore causing the block in dorsiflexion? Your insight is appreciated!

  21. Hi there – I fell from my roof about (12 feet ) in summer of 2014 and crushed my calcaneus and had a fracture of my talus. I have 2 plates and nine screws holding it together. My recovery has been pretty good, though have not been able to start running again. I also fractured my back and have some hardware in there also – rods and pins from T2 – T4. I had been training in the gym for a year with a personal trainer prior to the accident and though I hate squats and have never been good at them we were working with some weight. I took a year off after the accident from the gym but have been back it for a year. I cannot squat anymore. My balance sucks as when , as you obviously know, you break your calcaneus I have limited inversion/exversion. I can do body weight squats with my hands in front of me for balance but as soon as my trainer even hands me like a broomstick bar ( zero weight on it) I cannot get the motion and lose my balance after the first 5-6 tries. I don’t know if it’s just a mental block or my foot mobility is impacting it so much that it’s not going to work out for me. I also have a really tight achilles on that side. Thoughts, I’m tearing my hair out

  22. I started squatting every day and after a week or two my knees started to hurt efter I did like 50 squats… How could that be if squats doesn’t effect your knees?

  23. Great article! I’ve recently joined crossfit after completing a 6 week boot camp. Of course, squats are an integral part of every workout. I stepped wrong off a curb in 2009 and suffered a trimalleolar ankle fracture which required a plate and 9 screws to repair. I still have all the hardware in my ankle. Two of those screws are along the medial malleolus and seem to block my ankle from full dorsiflexion. I have stretched and worked on my heel cords at my PT and Dr’s behests. When I dorsiflex my ankle, it seems one or both of those screws is the culprit rather than a tight Achilles tendon. I do not feel a pull of tightness in my calf or heel cords but rather a hard stop from the anteromedial aspect of my ankle. Now that I have joined crossfit, the coaches have started watching my squats very closely and noticed that my left heel refuses to stay on the ground. After explaining about my hardware, they had me try a 10 lb weight plate on the floor wedged under my heel. Adding a 15 lb barbell to practice overhead squats felt much more balanced and comfortable using the plate. Then last week they started working on clean and jerk and I was concerned about trying to hop at the same time trying to make sure my foot landed properly on the plate. So I did those movements without the plate to avoid landing wrong on my foot. Instead I’ve noticed a new problem…the lateral aspect of my left knee is now painful and gets worse when I have to do any squats or jumping. My question: is there anything I can do to work on improving my ankle range of motion to improve the proper mechanics of my squat so I can continue with crossfit? I have great coaches who modify movements and exercises for me as needed but I’m beginning to think there’s a limit to what my ankle is going to allow me to do safely. It’s a huge source of frustration since I have avoided much physical activity other than walking or a stationary bike for the last 7+ yrs largely because of convincing myself I can’t do anything else due to my ankle. I have thoroughly enjoyed crossfit so far but I keep running into stumbling blocks with my ankle and now my knee. It seems I’m spending more time nursing painful and inflamed joints than I am actually spending time at the box. Any input or advice would be greatly appreciated!

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